鸿韦用烧制陶土作为雕塑材料

2019-12-27 06:16 来源:未知

  鸿韦是一位成熟的雕塑家、陶艺家。鸿韦接受了中西方双重文化的教育,其雕塑作品《沉思的重量》清晰地表达了世界文化融合背景下的中国雕塑的当代性。从中央美术学院雕塑系毕业后,鸿韦在陶艺领域排名第一的美国纽约州阿尔弗雷德大学艺术设计学院开始了对烧制陶土的研究美国国际陶艺协会副主席温o海格比在评价鸿韦的作品时说道:艺术很需要一种严肃的文化评判的元素嵌入其中,更经常地是一种缺乏深度的,不安的语言与西方相连。在这一方面,鸿韦的作品表现了他通过雕塑作品来连接东西方语言的能力。优秀的艺术作品是可以穿越文化、被拥有不同文化背景的人所共同欣赏的。

  鸿韦在人体雕塑技能和用一种具有创新的方式对自塑像的传统探索之间,获得了引人注目的平衡。他使泥土变成了微妙的,具有诗意结构的形象,那种非凡的松弛感,暗示出了其强健的洞察力。他的作品与众不同,通过直觉,追随对材料的处理和利用而获得的形象,来捕捉对个体经验深刻的个人分析。鸿韦的雕塑作品,让我们回忆起在世界性的视觉背景下的中国传统文化,从而创造了对自我的解读。他的作品清晰地阐释了跨越传统的,观念的,文化的界线。

  2013年12月12日,中国雕塑家鸿韦在法国卢浮宫国际展上凭借其作品《沉思的重量》荣获本届法国卢浮宫国际展雕塑类最高奖项泰勒大奖。鸿韦受到法国前美协主席贝拉尔先生的热情接见,并由法国美协主席米歇尔金亲自颁奖。鸿韦的雕塑作品受到了西方艺术界的高度认可,米歇尔金先生称赞说:鸿韦的雕塑强烈地表现了中国雕塑的当代性。

  如果在不知道艺术家的情况下看《沉思的重量》,我们很难确定这组作品一定是出自东方艺术家之手的。这组头像有东方人模糊的面孔,也有东方传统的古塔形式。每个头像的神情在竖立的塔形结构下显得格外静穆自持,传达出东方人特有的深邃。但是,在空间表达与材料运用方面,《沉思的重量》却体现了艺术家对当代雕塑的探索。圆形头部和三角形肩部使得整组作品的基本形简练清晰。艺术家刻意将肩膀横向展开,由此扩大了空间。仔细审视,艺术家将每个头像的嘴与鼻之间的距离缩小,从而压缩了局部空间,使头像更具有整体性。同时,艺术家用自上而下相互叠加的形体为整组作品创造了负空间,在结构严谨的作品中穿插了一丝松弛感。

  就雕塑材料而言,鸿韦用烧制陶土作为雕塑材料,这体现了艺术家对当代雕塑材料的大胆尝试。鸿韦将自己对陶土材料的理解与当代雕塑语言将结合,在艺术媒介方面探索更多的可能性。早在中央美术学院学习期间,鸿韦已开始尝试使用不同的材料来做人物雕塑,比如铜、木头、不锈钢、甚至冰。鸿韦在美国研究陶艺时发现了烧制陶土作为当代雕塑材料的独特性。烧制陶土的过程本身带有很大的不确定性。艺术家在烧制陶土的过程中是不可能精准地控制陶土的颜色和纹理的变化,只能根据经验和感觉在一定程度上把握这种变化以达到自己想要的效果。鸿韦正是在这种持续的试验、希望和兴奋中感受到烧制陶土作为雕塑材料的独特魅力。这种永远处于变化的但又能被自己所感知的微妙的过程也恰恰符合了艺术的当代性注重过程和实验、强调个体经验。正如即兴表演的爵士乐一样,艺术家无法预知下一个作品中会有什么样的精彩和惊喜,因为没有提前预制的规则,艺术家遵循的是即时的冲动和对长期培养的对艺术的敏感性。鸿韦正是在变化的、不确定的过程中发现和培养自己独特的艺术语言。在《沉思的重量》中,温和、坚硬的作品质地以及略微泛青的陶土黄首先使人们感受到自然的古朴和力量。如同风干后裂开的树皮一般的肌理暗示了强烈的时间概念,粗细不同的裂纹同时也呈现着生命经过自然严酷考验之后依旧存有的无限的张力。艺术家用陶土来表现自然,表达生命。因而我们可以在原始的、甚至苍老的自然表层品读出一种年轻的、坚韧的生命力,而生命本身又表现着自然的神秘和魅力。鸿韦的雕塑作品的当代性在于他通过对艺术的直觉来大胆地使用新的雕塑材料并使其获得了形象,以此捕捉、记录和表达自己的经验和感悟。

  在某种程度上说,这些作品仍然带给人们自塑像的感觉,艺术家对每个头像的神情表达都经过了仔细的斟酌,每个头像的表情略有差异:有向下审视自我的沉静的眼神,也有向前平视世界的淡定的目光。这流露出了艺术家自身内心情感的微妙变化。这些自塑像虽然有艺术家自我解读的迹象,但是从空间、结构来观察整组作品时,自塑像所要表达的意义已经不那么重要了。自下而上、依次缩小的人头像体现了一种更深远的情感,向上依次叠加的头像似乎暗示了一种人类文明永恒上升的趋势一种人们可以无限想象的上升。艺术家对空间的极致探索以及对头像神情的精准把握使得作品含有一种融汇东西方文化的气质。使得具有东西方文化血统的人都能通过与作品面对面的接触来找到存在其中的可以解读的内容。优秀的艺术品总会有一种强大的释放能力和吸纳能力。《沉思的重量》释放的是艺术家对东西方艺术的深刻感悟以及对自身深沉的思考,同时吸纳了来自不同文化人的多重解读。由此,使得艺术家和作品本身更加丰富。

  通过《沉思的重量》,鸿韦赋予烧制陶土一种柔和的、松弛的、富有诗意的空间结构。头像上粗细不等的裂纹生动地阐述了烧制陶土本身所含有的时间概念。粗燥的、温暖的、与大地紧密联系的烧制陶土在这组作品中显得格外古朴和真切,这也传达了艺术家在创作《沉思的重量》时所给予的真实的思考。优秀的艺术品是理性高度控制下的感性表现。烧制陶土过程中的对偶然性的处理和再创造体现了艺术家对雕塑和陶土文化的深刻理解。由此,鸿韦的雕塑作品跨越文化差异、传统与观念的界线,向我们展现当代雕塑的个性主义。

芝加哥艺术学院 李伊晴

Between Eastern Philosophy and Contemporary Art Yiqing Li

  Hongwei is one of most excellent Chinese young artist practicing today. After graduating from the Sculpture Department of Central Academy of Fine Art, Beijing, he studied ceramic art at the School of Art and Design of Alfred University, New York. Currently, he divides his time between Beijing and New York. His sculpture and ceramic works were exhibited in New York City, Beijing, Huston, Philadelphia, Paris, and many other cities. In 2013, Hongwei was selected to be the youngest member of International Academy of Ceramics in Geneva, Switzerland. On the occasion of the 2014 New Year celebration, his sculpture Weight of Meditation was exhibited at the Carrousel International Fine Arts Exhibition in the Museum of Louvre. Meanwhile, Hongwei was awarded with Taylor Prize by French Fine Art Academy. Most recently, Hongwei was invited to join Taylor Foundation in France.

  Mr. Michael King, the president of the French Fine Art Academy, said that Hongweis sculpture clearly reflects contemporaneity of Chinese sculpture. There is an Eastern philosophical mood running through Hongweis sculpture. Although he was educated and are still working in New York for months annually, Hongwei keeps a profound connection with Chinese culture. He does not simply create abstract art works that Western art world upholds. Rather, he endeavors to explore the sculpture materials and forms that can best convey Chinese thoughts in a contemporary way. His work employs the Western artistic methodologies and techniques yet retains and reflects the Eastern philosophies.

  Weight of Meditation is an installation-based sculpture. Seven portraits are stacked vertically, with each getting smaller as going up. This multiplied triangular form has symbolic connection with Eastern ancient pagodas, creating a sense of weight and containment. Each portrait has a blurred Eastern face and meditative expression, evoking the Taoist concept of Dao Fa Zi Ran, which means that through meditation, man can internalize the nature. In order to fashion an ideal form that implies an advancing trend of meditation, Hongwei deliberately prolonged the horizontal lines of the shoulders and narrowed down the distance between the mouth and the nose of each portrait. His meticulous work on space and volume reveals the influence that the rigorous training of Eastern and Western academy has had on his art. ThroughWeight of Meditation, Hongwei pays homage to the philosophy of Chinese calligraphy, which emphasizes that thoughts go beyond tangible materials. This installation work ends at the smallest portrait, but its triangular and increasing trend create a sense of eternity, which alludes that the meditation and wisdom of human are far from the end.

  During the past eight years, Hongwei experimented with various art materials, ranging from steel and wood to clay and glass. He eventually chose fired clay to makeWeight of Meditation. Through this work, he gave two conflicting qualities to clay: solid and soft. The matte and dry surface looks like pieces of cracked tree bark that experienced years of air seasoning. There is a strong sense of time involved in this condensed surface. While, the veins of varying thickness run cross the dry and hard surface, leaving long strips into the surface and creating a sense of looseness as well as softness. These two qualities blend in the faces of portraits harmoniously and naturally, which demonstrates the artists mastery and use of fired clay. Hongweis deep understanding of clay came from his repetitive practices of firing clay. The process of firing clay is highly uncertain and full of random elements. It is impossible for people to accurately predict the change of clays colors and textures as it is being fired. The artist can only subtly perceive the change based on his experience and immediate perception. It is in constantly changing process, Hongwei captured a full range of feelings about this material: warm, volatile, natural, hard, soft, etc. His art creating process seems to be an improvisational Jazz music, in which he cant know what is going to happen and what surprise awaits him. This reveals a crucial feature of contemporary art in which process and experiments are prioritized over the final products.Generally, clay is considered as a traditional art material, but Hongwei gave this old material with innovative forms and ideas, making it interpretable in a contemporary way.

  Looking back through his works, Hongweis art has a dimension of self-inspect. Studying and working in New York provided him with a different experience that allowed him to deepen the exploration of the self. As Hongwei said, he felt lost in a different culture when he firstly came to New York. He needed to find a self-identity in a different culture. He created a large number of self-portraits in different forms, such as When Logic Is Sleeping, Between Conscious and Subconscious, Pray. All of these works are full of contemplative mood, leading us to see his interior world. By creating the work Ego? , Hongwei posited himself into the whole nature and universe to think who and where he is. For Hongwei, making portraits is a way of thinking about himself and the world.By Weight of Meditation, he expresses his attitude toward society: although we are living in a society where people regard working speed as a credo, artists have to keep a steady step. At least, art requires patience instead of short-cuts.

The Art Institute of Chicago Yiqing Li

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